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Teen Knowledge of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Journal of Pediatric Health Care - Thu, 01/16/2020 - 00:00
The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a pediatric health care problem with significant physical and mental health consequences for victims, even death. Although there exists community-wide collaborations in the United States to address professional response to CSEC, these efforts often have a limited capacity to reach adolescents and involve them in CSEC prevention. As part of a prevention strategy, the National Institute of Justice recommends educating youth about CSEC and exploiters' recruitment tactics.
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Lack of Diagnosis and Screening for Pediatric Obesity in the Retail Health Setting: Implications for Quality Improvement Measures

Journal of Pediatric Health Care - Tue, 01/14/2020 - 00:00
Pediatric obesity has reached an epidemic status. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in patients and how often and how accurately a diagnosis was coded. The population for this study included children aged 3–18 years. This cohort presented to retail health clinics in a large urban health system for school or sports physicals from June 1, 2017, to November 30, 2017.
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Pediatric Mental Health and the Power of Primary Care: Practical Approaches and Validating Challenges

Journal of Pediatric Health Care - Tue, 01/14/2020 - 00:00
With over 300 school shootings in the past 5 years, the unprecedented use of online social media, and the growing demands of academia, mental illness is quickly becoming one of the top causes of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. In the past year, 90% of children in the U.S. visited their pediatric primary care provider (PCP), giving PCPs a unique opportunity to address the mental health needs of their patients.
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Self-assessment

Paediatrics and Child Health - Mon, 01/13/2020 - 00:00
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Genetic syndromes predisposing to paediatric brain tumours: the chicken or the egg?

Paediatrics and Child Health - Mon, 01/13/2020 - 00:00
Cancer in childhood is a disorder of growth and development. Up to 10% of patients diagnosed with cancer during childhood have a known underlying genetic predisposition syndrome. Affected individuals usually have multisystem involvement from the underlying syndrome and certain syndromes are associated with development of characteristic tumours with sites of predilection within the neuraxis. For the healthcare professionals involved with paediatric patients it is important to have basic knowledge of the cancer susceptibility syndromes.
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Management of Wilms' tumour

Paediatrics and Child Health - Mon, 01/13/2020 - 00:00
Wilms' tumour (WT) is the commonest renal tumour of childhood and its treatment is regarded as one of the success stories of paediatric oncology with over 90% cure rate. Most patients present with localized unilateral tumours. Histology and stage are important prognostic factors, and children with stage IV and diffuse anaplasia have poorer outcomes. Whilst there are differences in the treatment approaches around the world, outcomes are excellent for most subgroups of Wilms' tumour. The European Société Internationale d'Oncologie Pédiatrique (SIOP) recommends pre-operative chemotherapy to children over 6 months whilst the North American Children's Oncology Group offers primary nephrectomy and uses biomarkers for treatment stratification.
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Editorial Board

Paediatrics and Child Health - Wed, 01/01/2020 - 00:00
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Society Page

Journal of Pediatric Health Care - Wed, 01/01/2020 - 00:00
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Partnering With Librarians

Journal of Pediatric Health Care - Wed, 01/01/2020 - 00:00
The role of the librarian is to locate, organize, make available, and often disseminate information. Librarians in the 21st century primarily work with digital resources to ensure that clinicians have easy access to the information needed to practice, research, and teach, and for lifelong learning. The focus of this editorial is to highlight the value the librarian brings to writing and publishing. Moreover, as you work in other settings, be sure to think about collaborating with a librarian to raise the level of productivity in the areas of teaching and clinical practice.
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Erratum

Journal of Pediatric Health Care - Wed, 01/01/2020 - 00:00
Erratum to the article “Attachment Disorders,” by Gail Hornor, published in the September/October 2019 issue of the Journal (Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 33, 612–622).
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Pediatric Pericarditis Case Report

Journal of Pediatric Health Care - Wed, 01/01/2020 - 00:00
Although pericarditis is uncommonly encountered and diagnosed in pediatric primary care, it has potentially life-threatening sequela. This article presents a case report that illustrates how evasive the diagnosis of pericardial effusion can be. The early symptoms of pericardial effusion resemble common viral conditions that can easily be overlooked. Subtle presenting symptoms and the importance of urgent multidisciplinary collaboration and emergent referral for the child with pericarditis are summarized.
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Café au Lait Macules and Associated Genetic Syndromes

Journal of Pediatric Health Care - Wed, 01/01/2020 - 00:00
Café au lait macules (CALMs) are a common, isolated dermatologic finding in the general population. But when do these irregularly shaped, jagged-edged, flat, hyperpigmented birthmarks suggest something that may warrant referral? Most pediatric providers are familiar with the association of CALMs and neurofibromatosis type 1. There are, however, other genetic conditions associated with these seemingly benign skin spots. This article provides an overview of CALMs, followed by a summary of several conditions associated with CALMs ranging from the most common (neurofibromatosis type 1) to rare, ring chromosome syndromes.
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A practical guide to red blood cell transfusion in children

Paediatrics and Child Health - Thu, 12/26/2019 - 00:00
Red cell transfusion is common in paediatric practice and indicated in haemorrhagic shock, anaemia and certain inherited haematological diseases. As with other blood products there are risks associated with their administration and improper use. Extensive guidance is available in the UK in order to maintain adequate haemovigilance and safe transfusion practice. This article summarises the rationale behind red cell transfusion and offers a practical guide to clinical decision making in the acute hospital setting.
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Non-therapeutic male circumcision

Paediatrics and Child Health - Mon, 12/23/2019 - 00:00
Recent guidance on nontherapeutic male circumcision (NTMC) from the UK focuses on ethical and legal issues, addressing in particular religious NTMC. The guidance is generally negative, especially regarding NTMC of minors. This contrasts to guidance provided in other countries where a wider range of literature has been reviewed. There is strong medical data showing that NTMC protects against urinary tract and sexually transmitted infections, dermatological problems, and genital cancers. A risk-benefit analysis of infant NTMC for the UK shows that benefits exceed risks by 200 to one, and that more than half of uncircumcised males may experience a foreskin-related adverse medical condition over their lifetime.
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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Adolescents: Early Diagnosis and Intervention

Journal of Pediatric Health Care - Fri, 12/20/2019 - 00:00
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been recognized as the most common cause of infertility in women and is associated with other comorbidities including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (Ibáñez et al., 2017; Sebastian, Wiemann, Bacha, & Alston Taylor, 2018). Hyperandrogenism with a persistent elevation of serum testosterone is a cardinal sign of PCOS and is the underlying hormonal cause of chronic anovulation, infertility, acne, and hirsutism (Rosenfield, 2015a). The prevalence of PCOS is 6% to 10% of reproductive women and is steadily increasing (Sebastian et al., 2018).
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Statistics at square zero: a survival guide

Paediatrics and Child Health - Fri, 12/20/2019 - 00:00
In order to understand or conduct research, it is important that all clinicians have at least a basic grasp of the commonly encountered statistical tests. Each has its limitations but there is usually a best or more appropriate test to use for a given set of data. This is a key skill for all clinicians and is one of the curriculum competencies identified by the Royal College of Paediatrics of Child Health. Much to the chagrin of many trainees it is also tested in the RCPCH examinations. A basic understanding of some of the more commonly encountered tests is helpful: it allows a more thorough appreciation of the data that are being presented in published studies and for those undertaking the RCPCH Theory and Science examination offers ‘marks for free’.
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